David Whittaker (NES Driver)
David Whittaker is the unofficial name of the sound driver that David Whittaker created for the Nintendo Entertainment System. To create music and sound effects for his sound driver, Whittaker programmed the sound driver in 6502 assembly language and wrote the music and sound effects in assembly. According to Jeroen Tel, Whittaker converted his NES sound driver from his Commodore 64 sound driver.
The first released game to use Whittaker's sound driver for the NES was the North American exclusive title Loopz. The last game that used it, without Whittaker's knowledge, was The Lion King. The only Japanese game to be released with his driver was Castelian. In total, Whittaker's driver was used in 8 games for the NES. Whittaker has also stated in interviews writing the music for a few NES games that appear to be unreleased. One of these, for example, is an NES conversion of the computer game Licence to Kill.
When Manfred Trenz was developing Super Turrican for the NES, he needed a sound driver and asked Whittaker for his, and David lent him the source code for his engine, which Trenz modified and then used.
Tony Bybell reverse-engineered Whittaker's NES driver and wrote to the VGMPF:
Whittaker's sound driver utilized the RP2A03 in North America/Japan and the RP2A07. Unfortunately, Whittaker either forgot to account for, or didn't care about the differences between 50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the USA, resulting in his North American released games to sound higher in pitch and faster than normal. However, after the first two games, Whittaker configured his driver to play at approximately the same tempo in both PAL and NTSC formats. Whittaker's sound driver only utilized the four main channels of the NES APU. The DPCM channel was used only once in Krusty's Fun House, in which Krusty's laugh is heard at the title screen. Most of the instruments contained within the driver utilize vibrato, but they seem to be disable at the higher frequencies in some instances.
|1990-10-??||Loopz (NES)|| |
|1991-??-??||Elite (NES)|| |
|1991-06-??||Castelian (NES) (キョロちゃんランド)|| |
|1992-09-??||Krusty's Fun House (NES)|| |
|1992-10-??||Spider-Man: Return of the Sinister Six (NES)|| |
|1993-??-??||Alfred Chicken (NES)|| |
|1993-07-22||Super Turrican (NES)|
|1995-05-25||The Lion King (NES)|| |
|Unreleased||007: Licence to Kill (NES)|
|Unreleased||Ferrari Grand Prix (NES)|
G-7 = 11 F#7 = 12 F-7 = 13 E-7 = 14 D#7 = 15 D-7 = 16 C#7 = 18 C-7 = 19 B-6 = 1B A#6 = 1C A-6 = 1E G#6 = 20 G-6 = 22 F#6 = 24 F-6 = 26 E-6 = 29 D#6 = 2B D-6 = 2E C#6 = 31 C-6 = 34 B-5 = 37 A#5 = 3A A-5 = 3E G#5 = 41 G-5 = 45 F#5 = 49 F-5 = 4E E-5 = 52 D#5 = 57 D-5 = 5D C#5 = 62 C-5 = 68 B-4 = 6F A#4 = 75 A-4 = 7C G#4 = 84 G-4 = 8B F#4 = 94 F-4 = 9D E-4 = A6 D#4 = B0 D-4 = BB C#4 = C5 C-4 = D1 B-3 = DE A#3 = EB A-3 = F9 G#3 = 108 G-3 = 118 F#3 = 129 F-3 = 13B E-3 = 14D D#3 = 161 D-3 = 176 C#3 = 18D C-3 = 1A4 B-2 = 1BD A#2 = 1D7 A-2 = 1F3 G#2 = 211 G-2 = 230 F#2 = 252 F-2 = 275 E-2 = 29A D#2 = 2C2 D-2 = 2EC C#2 = 31A C-2 = 348 B-1 = 37A A#1 = 3AF A-1 = 3E7
C-6 = 32 B-5 = 35 A#5 = 38 A-5 = 3C G#5 = 3F G-5 = 43 F#5 = 47 F-5 = 4C E-5 = 50 D#5 = 55 D-5 = 5A C#5 = 5F C-5 = 64 B-4 = 6B A#4 = 71 A-4 = 78 G#4 = 80 G-4 = 87 F#4 = 90 F-4 = 98 E-4 = A1 D#4 = AB D-4 = B7 C#4 = C0 C-4 = CC B-3 = D8 A#3 = E7 A-3 = F4 G#3 = 104 G-3 = 113 F#3 = 123 F-3 = 134 E-3 = 147 D#3 = 15A D-3 = 16F C#3 = 185 C-3 = 19D B-2 = 1B7 A#2 = 1D0 A-2 = 2E9 G#2 = 20B G-2 = 229 F#2 = 24A F-2 = 26C E-2 = 28E D#2 = 2B5 D-2 = 2DE C#2 = 30A C-2 = 338 B-1 = 369 A#1 = 39D A-1 = 3D5