1.) Pulse Wave
The YM2203, known more colloquially as the OPN, is an integrated circuit created by Yamaha. Specifically, it is a programmable sound generator which, in addition to replicating a YM2149F (SSG), is has three FM-synthesis channels. The YM2203 was primary used by NEC in their various home computer lines, and, to a lesser extent, Fujitsu and Sharp. It was also used in scores of arcade games. The YM2203 was usually paired with a YM3014 DAC to convert the output.
The YM2203 generates sound via frequency-modulated digital sine waves. It included 12 operator "cells", each generating a 13-bit sine wave at a programmable frequency, the volume of which is controlled by a programmable ADSR envelope. The output of these cells could be either summed together by the mixer, or fed into the input of another cell, in 4-cell batches creating the final sound values or "channels". 4 operator cells per channel allowed a total of 8 different permutations of cell connections, known as "algorithms" or instrument patches. This resulted in 3 FM synthesis channels.
The YM2203 was used on the following devices:
|1984-11-15||NEC||PC-6001 mkII SR|
|1985-01-??||NEC||PC-8001 mkII SR|
|1991-09-??||NEC||PC-9801 DA, DA2|
Scores of arcade games utilized the YM2203.
- This list is incomplete.
A YM2203C mounted onto a PCB next to a YMF262.
Two YM2203Cs mounted onto the motherboard of 1943: The Battle of Midway (ARC).
Paired with a YM3014.
|Manual||Download - (info)|
The YM2203 has been emulated by MAME and most of the home computer emulators that support sound.
- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamaha_YM2203 - Wikipedia.